Orchids Wiki
Catasetum

Catasetum discolor plate.jpg
Catasetum discolor plate from
Lindenia Iconographie des Orchidées

Scientific Classification
Kingdom: Plantae
Division: Magnoliophyta
Class: Liliopsida
Order: Asparagales
Family:Orchidaceae
Subfamily: Epidendroideae
Tribe: Cymbidieae
SubTribe: Catasetinae
Alliance:
Genus: Catasetum
Kunth 1822
Type Species
Catasetum macrocarpum


Catasetum, abbreviated as Ctsm in horticultural trade, is a genus of the Orchid family (Orchidaceae), subfamily Epidendroideae, tribe Cymbidieae, subtribe Catasetinae, with 166 species.

Distribution[]

Species of the genus Catasetum occur from Mexico to tropical America, with the majority in Brazil.

Description[]

They have thick, cigar-shaped pseudobulbs which are clustered. The leaves are pleated in the upper part and deciduous. The pseudobulbs become spiny after the leaves have dropped.

The inflorescence is borne on the basis. It consists of very fleshy flowers that are unisexual, which is exceptional for orchids. The colorful male and yellowish-green female flowers are typically situated on different plants. Which type of flower a plant produces is determined by the conditions under which it grows. There are rare cases in which a single plant in intermediate conditions will produce both male and female flowers. These flowers are markedly different in size and color. At first, taxonomists even thought they were dealing with different species.

The male flowers have a remarkable technique for the ejection of the pollinia. Sack-Shaped Catasetum (Catasetum saccatum), a tropical South American species, discussed briefly by Darwin, actually launches its viscid pollen sacs with explosive force, when an insect touches a seta. He was ridiculed for reporting this by the naturalist Thomas Huxley.

Culture[]

Grow in intermediate to warm conditions with partially bright light. Water regularly during growing season and when plants drop leaves during dormancy reduce watering. During dormancy only water about twice a month to keep pseudobulbs from shriveling. Resume watering normally when new growths occur in spring. Plants can die easily from over watering. Plants are usually grown in bark with perlite, cork, full sphagnum moss, and tree fern. Female flowers will often be produced when high light and low moisture is present. While male flowers are produced in shadier situation of higher moisture.

Naming[]

The name is derived from the long bristles on the column which triggers the pollen.

Synonyms[]

  1. Catachaeteum Hoffmansegg 1842
  2. Cuculina Raf. 1836[1838]
  3. Monacanthus G. Don 1839
  4. Monachanthus Lindley 1832
  5. Myanthus Lindley 1832
  6. Warczewitzia Skinner 1850-1

Species[]

  • Catasetum aculeatum (Brazil)
  • Catasetum adremedium (Peru)
  • Catasetum alatum (Brazil)
  • Catasetum albovirens (Brazil)
  • Catasetum albuquerquei (Brazil)
  • Catasetum apertum
  • Catasetum apolloi (Brazil)
  • Catasetum arachnoideum (N. Brazil).
  • Catasetum arietinum (Brazil).
  • Catasetum aripuanense (Brazil).
  • Catasetum ariquemense (Brazil)
    • Catasetum ariquemense var. ariquemense (Brazil). Pseudobulb, epiphyte
    • Catasetum ariquemense var. viride (Brazil)
  • Catasetum atratum : Lustrous Black Catasetum (Brazil).
  • Catasetum barbatum : Bearded Catasetum (Trinidad to S. Trop. America).
  • Catasetum bergoldianum (Venezuela).
  • Catasetum bicallosum (S. Venezuela).
  • Catasetum bicolor : Two-colored Catasetum (Colombia to S. Venezuela)
  • Catasetum bifidum (Brazil)
  • Catasetum blackii (Brazil)
  • Catasetum blepharochilum (Colombia).
  • Catasetum boyi (Brazil ).
  • Catasetum brichtae (Brazil) .
  • Catasetum cabrutae (Venezuela).
  • Catasetum callosum : Callused Catasetum (S. Trop. America).
  • Catasetum carolinianum (Brazil).
  • Catasetum carrenhianum (Brazil).
  • Catasetum carunculatum (Peru).
  • Catasetum cassideum (SE. Venezuela to N. Brazil).
  • Catasetum caucanum (Colombia).
  • Catasetum caxarariense (Brazil).
  • Catasetum cernuum : Nodding Catasetum (Trinidad to Brazil).
  • Catasetum charlesworthii (Venezuela).
  • Catasetum cirrhaeoides : Cirrhaea-like Cataseum (Brazil).
  • Catasetum cochabambanum (Bolivia).
  • Catasetum collare (Venezuela to Ecuador and N. Brazil).
  • Catasetum colossus (N. Brazil).
  • Catasetum complanatum (Brazil) .
  • Catasetum confusum : Confused Catasetum (Brazil).
  • Catasetum coniforme (Peru).
  • Catasetum cotylicheilum (Peru).
  • Catasetum crinitum (N. Brazil).
  • Catasetum cristatum : Comb-like Catasetum (N. South America to N. Brazil).
  • Catasetum cucullatum (Brazil).
  • Catasetum decipiens (Venezuela).
  • Catasetum deltoideum (Guianas).
  • Catasetum denticulatum : Small-toothed Catasetum (Brazil).
  • Catasetum discolor : Differently Colored Catasetum (S. Trop. America).
  • Catasetum dupliciscutula (Bolivia).
  • Catasetum expansum : Expansive Catasetum (Ecuador).
  • Catasetum fernandezii (Peru).
  • Catasetum ferox (S. Venezuela to Brazil).
  • Catasetum fimbriatum : Fringed Catasetum ((S. Trop. America).
  • Catasetum finetianum (Colombia).
  • Catasetum franchinianum (Brazil).
  • Catasetum fuchsii (Bolivia).
  • Catasetum galeatum (Brazil).
  • Catasetum galeritum (N. Brazil).
  • Catasetum georgii (N. Brazil).
  • Catasetum gladiatorium (Brazil)
  • Catasetum globiflorum : Spheroid-flowered Catasetum (Brazil)
  • Catasetum gnomus : Gnome-like Catasetum (S. Venezuela to N. Brazil)
  • Catasetum gomezii (Venezuela).
  • Catasetum hillsii (Peru.
  • Catasetum hoehnei (Brazil)
  • Catasetum hookeri (Brazil)
  • Catasetum incurvum : Bent Catasetum (Ecuador to Peru).
  • Catasetum integerrimum : Intact Catasetum (Mexico to C. America).
  • Catasetum interhomesianum (Bolivia).
  • Catasetum japurense (N. Brazil).
  • Catasetum jarae : Jara's Catasetum (Peru).
  • Catasetum juruenense : Rio Jurua Catasetum (Brazil).
  • Catasetum justinianum (Bolivia).
  • Catasetum kempfii (Bolivia).
  • Catasetum kleberianum : Kleber's Catasetum (Brazil)
  • Catasetum kraenzlinianum (N. Brazil).
  • Catasetum laminatum : Scaled Catasetum (C. & SW. Mexico).
  • Catasetum lanceatum (Brazil) .
  • Catasetum lanxiforme (Peru).
  • Catasetum lehmannii (Colombia)
  • Catasetum lemosii (N. Brazil).
  • Catasetum lindleyanum (Colombia).
  • Catasetum linguiferum (N. Brazil).
  • Catasetum longifolium (N. South America to N. Brazil).
  • Catasetum longipes (Brazil) .
  • Catasetum lucis (Colombia).
  • Catasetum luridum : Pale-yellow Catasetum (Guyana to E. Brazil).
  • Catasetum macrocarpum : Monkey Goblet, Monkshead Monk's Head Orchid, Large-fruited Catasetum (Trinidad and Tobago to N. Argentina).
  • Catasetum macroglossum : Large-lipped Catasetum (Ecuador.
  • Catasetum maculatum : Spotted Catasetum (C. America to Venezuela).
  • Catasetum maranhense (NE. Brazil).
  • Catasetum maroaense (Venezuela).
  • Catasetum matogrossense (Brazil)
  • Catasetum meeae (N. Brazil).
  • Catasetum mentosum (N. Brazil).
  • Catasetum merchae (Venezuela).
  • Catasetum micranthum (Brazil) .
  • Catasetum microglossum (Ecuador to Peru).
  • Catasetum mojuense (Brazil)
  • Catasetum monodon (Brazil
  • Catasetum monzonense (Peru).
  • Catasetum moorei : Moore's Catasetum (Peru).
  • Catasetum multifidum (Brazil).
  • Catasetum multifissum (Peru).
  • Catasetum nanayanum (Peru).
  • Catasetum napoense (Ecuador to Peru).
  • Catasetum naso : Nose Catasetum (Colombia to Venezuela).
  • Catasetum ochraceum : Ochre-yellow Catasetum (Colombia).
  • Catasetum ollare (N. Brazil).
  • Catasetum ornithoides (N. Brazil).
  • Catasetum osakadianum (Brazil).
  • Catasetum osculatum (Brazil) .
  • Catasetum palmeirinhense (Brazil).
  • Catasetum parguazense : Paraguaza River Catasetum (Venezuela).
  • Catasetum pendulum : Pendant Catasetum (W. Mexico).
  • Catasetum peruvianum (Peru).
  • Catasetum pileatum : Mother of Pearl Flower, Felt-capped Catasetum (Trinidad to Ecuador).
  • Catasetum planiceps (N. South America to Brazil).
  • Catasetum platyglossum (Colombia).
  • Catasetum pleidactylon (Peru).
  • Catasetum poriferum (Guyana).
  • Catasetum pulchrum (Brazil).
  • Catasetum punctatum (Brazil).
  • Catasetum purum : One-colored Catasetum (Brazil)
  • Catasetum purusense (Peru.)
  • Catasetum pusillum (Peru)
  • Catasetum randii (Brazil).
  • Catasetum regnellii (Brazil).
  • Catasetum reichenbachianum (N. Brazil).
  • Catasetum richteri (Brazil)
  • Catasetum ricii (Bolivia).
  • Catasetum rigidum (Brazil).
  • Catasetum rivularium (Brazil).
  • Catasetum rohrii (S. Brazil).
  • Catasetum rolfeanum (N. Brazil).
  • Catasetum rondonense (Brazil)
  • Catasetum rooseveltianum : Roosevelt's Catasetum (Brazil)
  • Catasetum saccatum : Sack-Shaped Catasetum (Trop. S. America).
  • Catasetum samaniegoi (Ecuador).
  • Catasetum sanguineum : Red Catasetum (Colombia to Venezuela).
    • Catasetum sanguineum var. sanguineum (Colombia to Venezuela). Pseudobulb epiphyte
    • Catasetum sanguineum var. viride (Colombia to Venezuela).
  • Catasetum schmidtianum : Schmidt's Catasetum (Brazil).
  • Catasetum schunkei (Peru).
  • Catasetum schweinfurthii (Peru.
  • Catasetum seccoi (Brazil).
  • Catasetum semicirculatum (Brazil).
  • Catasetum socco ((SE. Brazil).
  • Catasetum spitzii : Spitz's Catasetum (Brazil).
    • Catasetum spitzii var. album (Brazil). Pseudobulb epiphyte
    • Catasetum spitzii var. christyanum (Brazil). Pseudobulb epiphyte
    • Catasetum spitzii var. sanguineum (Brazil). Pseudobulb epiphyte
    • Catasetum spitzii var. spitzii (Brazil). Pseudobulb epiphyte
  • Catasetum splendens (Venezuela to N. Brazil).
  • Catasetum stenoglossum (N. Brazil).
  • Catasetum stevensonii (Ecuador to Peru).
  • Catasetum tabulare : Table-Like Catasetum (Colombia).
  • Catasetum taguariense (Brazil).
  • Catasetum taquariense (WC. Brazil).
  • Catasetum tenebrosum : Dark-brown Catasetum (Ecuador to Peru).
  • Catasetum tenuiglossum (Peru).
  • Catasetum thompsonii (Guyana).
  • Catasetum tigrinum : Tiger-striped Catasetum (Brazil).
  • Catasetum transversicallosum (Peru).
  • Catasetum trautmannii (Peru).
  • Catasetum tricolor (Guatemala).
  • Catasetum tricorne (Colombia).
  • Catasetum triodon (S. Brazil).
  • Catasetum tuberculatum (Colombia to Peru).
  • Catasetum tucuruiense (Brazil).
  • Catasetum uncatum (Brazil) .
  • Catasetum variabile (Brazil).
  • Catasetum vinaceum (WC. Brazil).
    • Catasetum vinaceum var. album (Brazil) Pseudobulb epiphyte
    • Catasetum vinaceum var. splendidum (Brazil). Pseudobulb epiphyte
    • Catasetum vinaceum var. vinaceum (Brazil) . Pseudobulb epiphyte
  • Catasetum viridiflavum : Green-yellow Catasetum (C. America).
  • Catasetum yavitaense (Venezuela).

Natural Hybrids[]

  • Catasetum × dunstervillei ( = C. discolor × C. pileatum) (Venezuela).
  • Catasetum × guianense (= C. longifolium × C. macrocarpum) (Guianas).
  • Catasetum × intermedium (Brazil).
  • Catasetum × issanensis(= C. longifolium × C. pileatum) (Brazil).
  • Catasetum × pohlianum(= C. hookeri × C. trulla) (Brazil)
  • Catasetum × roseoalbum (Guianas).
  • Catasetum × sodiroi (= C. expansum × C.macroglossum) (Ecuador).
  • Catasetum × tapiriceps (N. Brazil).
  • Catasetum × violascens : Purple Catasetum (W. South America).
  • Catasetum × wendlingeri (Venezuela to Guyana).

References[]

This page uses Creative Commons Licensed content from Wikipedia (view authors). Smallwikipedialogo.png
  • Dressler, Robert L. (1993) : Field guide to the orchids of Costa Rica and Panama, Cornell University Press