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Cymbidium

Cymbidium iridiodes plate.jpg
Cymbidium iridioides plate from
Lindenia Iconographie des Orchidées

Scientific Classification
Kingdom: Plantae
Division: Magnoliophyta
Class: Liliopsida
Order: Asparagales
Family:Orchidaceae
Subfamily: Epidendroideae
Tribe: Cymbidieae
SubTribe: Cyrtopodiinae
Alliance: Cymbidium
Genus: Cymbidium
Swartz 1799
Type Species
Cymbidium aloifolium


Cymbidium Swartz 1799, is a genus of 52 evergreen species in the orchid family Orchidaceae, subfamily Epidendroideae, tribe Cymbidieae, subtribe Cyrtopodiinae.

Distribution[]

This genus is distributed in tropical and subtropical Asia (such as North-India, China, Japan, Malaysia, the Philippines, and Borneo) and North-Australia, usually growing in cooler climates at high elevation.

Description[]

Cymbidium plants are sympodial and grow to a height of 60 cm and the racemes as high as 90 cm. The raceme grows from the base of the most recent pseudobulb. Each flower can have a diameter of 5 to 10 cm, according to the species. They bloom during the winter, and each plant can have up to fifteen or more flowers. The fantastic range of colors for this genus include white, green, yellowish-green, cream, yellow, brown, pink, and red.

The flowers last about ten weeks. They have a waxy texture. The rounded sepals and petals have about the same dimensions. They show very diverse color patterns, different for every species.  Roughly eight long, green, narrow leaves originate from the sheath of each pseudobulb.

Cymbidiums became popular in Europe during the Victorian era. One feature that makes the plant so popular is the fact that it can survive during cold temperatures (as low as 7˚ C or 45˚ F). Orchid hobbyists in temperate climates appreciate the fact that they can bloom in winter, when few other orchids are blooming.

They have been cultivated for thousands of years, especially in China. Asian Cymbidiums or Chinese Cymbidiums refer to mainly six species of cymbidiums orchids that are found throughout East Asia in areas of China, Korea, Japan, India, and in parts of Thailand and Vietnam. These species are usually grown for their variegated leaves. But plants are also grown for their fragrant flowers and peloric flower structure. Plants are usually grown in long and thin vase like pots. The six species are from the section Jensoa

Hybridization[]

For more Hybrids see Category:Cymbidium Hybrids

The first artifical cymbidium hybrid was made in 1889 between Cymbidium eburneum and cymbidium lowianum creating Cymbidium Veitchii.[1]

Miniature Cymbidium hybridization started in 1903 with the registration of Cymbidium Lowgrinum (Cym. tigrinum x Cym. lowianum).

Culture[]

Species are less common in cultivation. Most hybrids can be grown in cool to intermediate temperatures. Plants prefer dry outs between watering and a well drain mix. Water about once a week. Plant can be potted in soil or coarse bark. Plants are usually grown in medium amounts of sunlight. Plants with thick hard leaves should be grown in warm temperatures.

Commercially cut flower cymbidiums are grown wet, watered many times a day with weak fertiliser. Basically hydroponic to waste.

Diseases[]

Cymbidiums are susceptible to the Tobacco mosaic virus and Cymbidium mosaic potexvirus. These viruses causes the leaves to have discoloration patches. Infected plants can be distinguished from variegation by its opacity. Infected plants should be isolated or tossed out from collections. To prevent contamination of the viruses sterilize tools when cutting leaves or dividing plants with a torch or alcohol.

Taxonomy[]

  1. Section Floribundum
  2. Section Austrocymbidium
  3. Section Cymbidium
  4. Section Borneense
  5. Section Bigibbarium
  6. Section Himantophllum
  7. Section Annamaea
  8. Section Cyperorchis
  9. Section Parishiella
  10. Section Jensoa
  11. Section Pachyrhizanthe

Naming[]

It was first described by Olof Swartz in 1799. The name is derived from the Greek word kumbos, meaning 'hole, cavity'. It refers to the form of the base of the lip. Cymbidiums are usually called Boat Orchid because of the shape of the lip.

Synonyms[]

  1. Arethusantha Finet, 1897.
  2. Iridorchis Blume 1822
  3. Jensoa Raf. 1836[1838]
  4. Cyperorchis Blume, 1849.
  5. Pachyrhizanthe (Schltr.) Nakai, 1931.
  6. ×Cyperocymbidium A.D.Hawkes, 1964.

Species[]

  • Cymbidium aestivum Z.J.Liu & S.C.Chen (Yunnan, China South-Central)
  • Cymbidium aliciae (Philippines).
  • Cymbidium aloifolium : Aloe-Leafed Cymbidium (Himalaya to W. Malaysia).
  • Cymbidium atropurpureum (S. Thailand, W. & C. Malaysia).
  • Cymbidium banaense (Vietnam).
  • Cymbidium bicolor : Two-Colored Cymbidium (S. China to Trop. Asia).
    • Cymbidium bicolor subsp. bicolor (S. India, Sri Lanka). Pseudobulb epiphyte
    • Cymbidium bicolor subsp. obtusum (Himalaya to S. China and Indo-China). Pseudobulb epiphyte
    • Cymbidium bicolor subsp. pubescens (W. & C. Malaysia).
  • Cymbidium borneense (N. & NW. Borneo).
  • Cymbidium canaliculatum : Banana Orchid, Queensland Black Orchid, Small Groove-leaf Cymbidium (N. & E. Australia).
  • Cymbidium chawalongense (newly discovered in Tibet)
  • Cymbidium chloranthum : Green-flowered Cymbidium (W. Malaysia).
    • Cymbidium chloranthum subsp. chloranthum.
    • Cymbidium chloranthum subsp. palawanense (Philippines)
  • Cymbidium cochleare (E. Himalaya to Taiwan).
  • Cymbidium concinnum (China)
  • Cymbidium cyperifolium (Himalaya to S. China and Philippines).
    • Cymbidium cyperifolium subsp. cyperifolium (Himalaya to S. China).. Pseudobulb epiphyte
    • Cymbidium cyperifolium subsp. indochinense (Indo-China, Philippines).. Pseudobulb epiphyte
  • Cymbidium dayanum : Phoenix Orchid, Tree Orchid, Day's Cymbidium (Himalaya to S. Japan and Malaysia).
  • Cymbidium defoliatum (China).
  • Cymbidium devonianum : Devon's Cymbidium (Nepal to N. Thailand).
  • Cymbidium eburneum : Ivory-colored Cymbidium (Himalaya to Hainan).
  • Cymbidium elegans (Himalaya to SC. China).
  • Cymbidium elongatum (NW. Borneo).
  • Cymbidium ensifolium : Four Season Orchid, Golden-thread Orchid, Spring Orchid, Burned Apex Orchid, Rock Orchid (Trop. & Temp. E. Asia).
    • Cymbidium ensifolium subsp. ensifolium : Mt. Tu-Wu Fall Orchid (Indo-China to Temp. E. Asia). Pseudobulb, epiphyte
    • Cymbidium ensifolium subsp. haematodes (S. India to New Guinea). Pseudobulb epiphyte
  • Cymbidium erythraeum : Indian Cymbidium (Himalaya to SC. China).
  • Cymbidium erythrostylum : Red Column Cymbidium (Vietnam)
  • Cymbidium faberi : Multi-flower Orchid, Miscanthus Orchid (Uttaranchal to Taiwan).
    • Cymbidium faberi var. faberi (C. & S. China, Taiwan). Pseudobulb epiphyte
    • Cymbidium faberi var. szechuanicum (Uttaranchal to SC. China). Pseudobulb epiphyte
  • Cymbidium finlaysonianum : Finlayson's Cymbidium (Indo-China to Malaysia).
  • Cymbidium floribundum : Golden Leaf-edge Orchid, Golden-edged Orchid, Yellow Margin Orchid (S. China, Taiwan).
  • Cymbidium goeringii : Spring Orchid (Himalaya to Temp. E. Asia).
    • Cymbidium goeringii var. goeringii : Goering's Cymbidium (Himalaya to Temp. E. Asia). Pseudobulb epiphyte
    • Cymbidium goeringii var. gracillimum : Leek Orchid, Chive Orchid (Japan to S. China. Pseudobulb epiphyte
  • Cymbidium gongshanense (S. China)
  • Cymbidium hartinahianum (N. Sumatra)
  • Cymbidium hookerianum (E. Nepal to S. China).
  • Cymbidium insigne : Splendid Cymbidium (N. Thailand to Hainan).
  • Cymbidium iridioides : Iris-like Cymbidium (Himalaya to SC. China).
  • Cymbidium kanran : Cold-growing Cymbidium (S. China to S. Japan).
  • Cymbidium lancifolium : Green-flowered Peacock Orchid, Lance-leafed Cymbidium (Trop. & Subtrop. Asia).
    • Cymbidium lancifolium var. lancifolium : Green Bamboo-leaf Orchid, Cut-grass Orchid (Trop. & Subtrop. Asia) . Pseudobulb epiphyte
    • Cymbidium lancifolium var. papuanum (New Guinea). Pseudobulb epiphyte
  • Cymbidium lowianum : Low's Cymbidium (China to N. Indo-China).
    • Cymbidium lowianum var. kalawense (Myanmar). Pseudobulb epiphyte
    • Cymbidium lowianum var. lowianum (China to N. Indo-China). Pseudobulb epiphyte
  • Cymbidium macrorhizon (N. Pakistan to Temp. E. Asia).
  • Cymbidium madidum : Buttercup Orchid, Northern Cymbidium, Moist Forest Cymbidium (Queensland to N. New South Wales).
  • Cymbidium mastersii : Master's Cymbidium (E. Himalaya to China)
  • Cymbidium micranthum Z.J.Liu & S.C.Chen (2004) (Yunnan, China South-Central,temperate Asia).
  • Cymbidium multiradicatum Z.J.Liu & S.C.Chen (Yunnan, S_W China)
  • Cymbidium munronianum (E. Himalaya to Assam)
  • Cymbidium nanulum (China (SW. Yunnan, SW. Guizhou), Hainan)
  • Cymbidium parishii (S. Myanmar).
  • Cymbidium paucifolium (China)
  • Cymbidium qiubeiense (China).
  • Cymbidium rhizomatosum (China)
  • Cymbidium rigidum (China)
  • Cymbidium rectum (Malaysia, N. Borneo)
  • Cymbidium roseum (W. Malaysia)
  • Cymbidium sanderae : Sander's Cymbidium (Vietnam).
  • Cymbidium schroederi (C. Vietnam).
  • Cymbidium sichuanicum (China)
  • Cymbidium sigmoideum (W. Malaysia).
  • Cymbidium sinense : Chinese Cymbidium (Assam to Nansei-shoto).
  • Cymbidium suave : Snake Orchid (E. Australia).
  • Cymbidium suavissimum (N. Myanmar)
  • Cymbidium teretipetiolatum (China).
  • Cymbidium tigrinum : Tiger-striped Cymbidium (Assam to China).
  • Cymbidium tracyanum : Tracy's Cymbidium (SE. Tibet to China and Indo-China)
  • Cymbidium tortisepalum : Mt. Tsukerg Orchid
    • Cymbidium tortisepalum var. longibracteatum (SC. China). Pseudobulb epiphyte
  • Cymbidium wenshanense (China to Vietnam)
    • Cymbidium wenshanense var quinquelobum (China)
  • Cymbidium whiteae (Sikkim)
  • Cymbidium wilsonii (China)

Natural Hybrids[]

  • Cymbidium × ballianum (Myanmar)
  • Cymbidium × baoshanense (SC. Yunnan). (C. lowianum × C. tigrinum)
  • Cymbidium × florinda (= C. erythrostylum × C. iridioides. Cyperorchis × florinda) (Vietnam).
  • Cymbidium × gammieanum ( = C. elegans × C. erythraeum. Cyperorchis × gammieana) (Nepal to Sikkim).
  • Cymbidium × glebelandensis ( = C. insigne × C. schroederi) (Vietnam)
  • Cybidium × nishiuchianum (C. goeringii × C. kanran)
  • Cymbidium × rosefieldense (= C. insigne × C. tracyanum. Cyperorchis × rosefieldensis) (Vietnam).
  • Cymbidium × woodlandense.( = C. mastersii × C. tracyanum. Cyperorchis × woodlandensis) (Myanmar)

Resources[]

PDF icon.pngAOS Cymbidium culture sheet

PDF icon.pngCymbidium Flora of China 2009


References[]

  1. Cribb, Phillip, and David Du Puy (1988). The Genus Cymbidium (Timber Press). 
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