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Eulophia

Eulophia bouliawongo plate.jpg
Eulophia bouliawongo plate from
The Orchid Album

Scientific Classification
Kingdom: Plantae
Division: Magnoliophyta
Class: Liliopsida
Order: Asparagales
Family:Orchidaceae
Subfamily: Epidendroideae
Tribe: Cymbidieae
SubTribe: Cyrtopodiinae
Alliance:
Genus: Eulophia
R. Brown & Lindley 1823
Type Species
Eulophia guineensis


Eulophia, abbreviated as Eupha in horticultural trade, is a genus of 120 species of orchids

Distribution[]

These are usually terrestrial or ground orchids, although some are epiphytes, and rarely, lithophytes. They are distributed in shady rainforests or in open scrub or woodland in the tropics and subtropics of Africa, India, Asia, Queensland (Australia), and the Americas, although most are found in Africa.

Description[]

Some species, such as Eulophia petersii, have adapted to very arid environments and are among the few orchids to have truly evolved desert living species. In the frost-free, semi-arid areas of Southern California, many Eulophia species, such as E. macra, E. petersii, E. plantaginea, and E. speciosa, can be grown outdoors year-round in well-drained pots with cactus/succulent potting mix (although E. speciosa prefers being grown in pure white sand), as long as they are given ample light through the winter and a drier winter resting period. Warmer growers, such as E. pulchra, E. keithii, and possibly even the extremely rare and difficult E. cucullata (the foxglove orchid), can probably be grown outdoors in the warmer areas of Florida and Hawaii, also.

The deciduous or evergreen leaves are usually pleated, with longitudinal veins. They are green and sheathed at the base. But in some species, the leaves may be reduced or have become brown scales. Some are leafless myco-heterotrophs.

The generally large, underground, fleshy rhizome indicates a sympodial growth habit, and this makes Eulophias fairly easy to divide and propagate, provided the grower is gentle. Many species can survive the dry season through their large bulbous ‘corms’.

The inflorescence arises from the base. It grows into a raceme. It is sometimes branched, as in the cases of E. macra and E. petersii. The inflorescences on the species with non-brancing spikes can support as many as 50 flowers; but in species with branching inflorescences, up to 150 blooms can occur per spike. While most Eulophia flowers rarely exceed 2" in width, this is often made up for by the sheer abundance of interesting blooms they produce. The sepals and the petals are alike. The lip usually has three lobes. As for most orchids, there are two pollinia for each flower. Eulophias (in bloom) can reach a height of 1.6m (6ft.). In any case, the ease of cultivation and reliability of blooming that many Eulophia species and hybrids demonstrate in captivity, in addition to their unique growth habits, makes them generally excellent orchids for amateur orchid collectors and people who like to grow plants with interesting flowers.

Culture[]

Plants grow in cool to warm conditions with moderate lighting. Pot in fine bark or sphagnum moss. Water regularly during the summer, about once every two days and gradually reduce as winter approaches winter. Plants can be infrequently in the winter to keep the pseudobulbs from shriveling, but with hold watering until new shoots appear.

Naming[]

It was first described by John Lindley in 1821. The name "Eulophia" was derived from the Greek words "eu" (well) and "lophos" (plume), referring to the crested ridges of the labellum (lip) in most species.

Synonyms[]

  1. Hypodematium A. Rich.
  2. Lissochilus R. Br.
  3. Orthochilus Hochst. ex A. Rich.
  4. Platypus Small & Nash
  5. Semiphajus Gagnep.
  6. Thysanochilus Falc.

Species[]

  • Eulophia abyssinica Rchb.f., 1850.
  • Eulophia aculeata (L.f.) Spreng., 1826.
    • Eulophia aculeata subsp. aculeata.
    • Eulophia aculeata subsp. huttonii (Rolfe) A.V.Hall, 1965.
  • Eulophia acutilabra Summerh., 1927.
  • Eulophia adenoglossa (Lindl.) Rchb.f., 1878.
  • Eulophia albobrunnea Kraenzl., 1902.
  • Eulophia aloifolia Welw. ex Rchb.f., 1867.
  • Eulophia alta (L.) Fawc. & Rendle, 1910.
  • Eulophia amblyosepala (Schltr.) Butzin, 1975.
  • Eulophia andamanensis Rchb.f., 1872.
  • Eulophia angolensis (Rchb.f.) Summerh., 1958.
  • Eulophia angornensis (Rchb.f.) P.J.Cribb,1998.
  • Eulophia angustilabris Seidenf., 1985.
  • Eulophia antunesii Rolfe, 1889.
  • Eulophia arenicola Schltr. in O.Warburg (ed.), 1903.
  • Eulophia aurantiaca Rolfe in D.Oliver & auct. suc. (eds.), 1897.
  • Eulophia barteri Summerh.,1936.
  • Eulophia beravensis Rchb.f., 1881.
  • Eulophia bicallosa (D.Don) P.F.Hunt & Summerh., 1966.
  • Eulophia biloba Schltr., 1899.
  • Eulophia bisaccata Kraenzl., 1902.
  • Eulophia borbonica Bosser, 2002.
  • Eulophia borneensis Ridl., 1896.
  • Eulophia bouliawongo (Rchb.f.) J.Raynal, 1966.
  • Eulophia bracteosa Lindl., 1833.
  • Eulophia brenanii P.J.Cribb & la Croix, 1998.
  • Eulophia brevipetala Rolfe in D.Oliver & auct. suc. (eds.), 1897.
  • Eulophia buettneri (Kraenzl.) Summerh. in J.Hutchinson & J.M.Dalziel, 1936.
  • Eulophia burmanica Hook.f., 1890.
  • Eulophia calantha Schltr. in O.Warburg (ed.), 1903.
  • Eulophia calanthoides Schltr., 1895.
  • Eulophia callichroma Rchb.f., 1881.
  • Eulophia campanulata Duthie, 1902.
  • Eulophia campbellii Prain, 1904.
  • Eulophia caricifolia (Rchb.f.) Summerh. in J.Hutchinson & J.M.Dalziel, 1936.
  • Eulophia carsonii Rolfe in D.Oliver & auct. suc. (eds.),1897.
  • Eulophia chaunanthe Seidenf., 1983 publ. 1984.
  • Eulophia chilangensis Summerh., 1927.
  • Eulophia chlorantha Schltr., 1895.
  • Eulophia chrysoglossoides Schltr.,1906.
  • Eulophia clandestina (Börge Pett.) Bytebier, 2008.
  • Eulophia clavicornis Lindl., 1836.
    • Eulophia clavicornis var. clavicornis.
    • Eulophia clavicornis var. inaequalis (Schltr.) A.V.Hall, 1965.
    • Eulophia clavicornis var. nutans (Sond.) A.V.Hall, 1965.
  • Eulophia clitellifera (Rchb.f.) Bolus, 1889.
  • Eulophia coccifera Frapp. ex Cordem., 1895.
  • Eulophia coddii A.V.Hall, 1965.
  • Eulophia coeloglossa Schltr. in O.Warburg (ed.), 1903.
  • Eulophia cooperi Rchb.f., 1881.
  • Eulophia corymbosa Schltr. in O.Warburg (ed.), 1903.
  • Eulophia cristata (Afzel. ex Sw.) Steud., 1840.
  • Eulophia cucullata (Afzel. ex Sw.) Steud., 1840.
  • Eulophia dabia (D.Don) Hochr., 1910.
  • Eulophia dactylifera P.J.Cribb, 1977.
  • Eulophia dahliana Kraenzl., 1896.
  • Eulophia densiflora Lindl., 1859.
  • Eulophia dentata Ames, 1911.
  • Eulophia distans (Summerh.) ined.
  • Eulophia divergens Fritsch, 1901.
  • Eulophia dufossei Guillaumin, 1930.
  • Eulophia ecristata (Fernald) Ames, 1904.
  • Eulophia elegans Schltr., 1915.
  • Eulophia emilianae C.J.Saldanha, 1974.
  • Eulophia ensata Lindl., 1828.
  • Eulophia ephippium (Rchb.f.) Butzin, 1975.
  • Eulophia epidendraea (J.König ex Retz.) C.E.C.Fisch. in J.S.Gamble,1928.
  • Eulophia epiphanoides Schltr., 1915.
  • Eulophia euantha Schltr., 1915.
  • Eulophia euglossa (Rchb.f.) Rchb.f. ex Bateman, 1866.
  • Eulophia eustachya (Rchb.f.) Geerinck, 1988.
  • Eulophia exaltata Rchb.f., 1857.
  • Eulophia explanata Lindl., 1833.
  • Eulophia eylesii Summerh., 1937.
    • Eulophia eylesii var. auquieriana Geerinck, 1990.
    • Eulophia eylesii var. eylesii.
  • Eulophia falcatiloba Szlach. & Olszewski, 2001.
  • Eulophia fernandeziana Geerinck, 1990.
  • Eulophia filifolia Bosser & Morat, 2001.
  • Eulophia flava (Lindl.) Hook.f., 1890.
  • Eulophia flavopurpurea (Rchb.f.) Rolfe in D.Oliver & auct. suc. (eds.), 1897.
  • Eulophia foliosa (Lindl.) Bolus, J. Linn. Soc., 1882.
  • Eulophia fridericii (Rchb.f.) A.V.Hall, 1965.
  • Eulophia galeoloides Kraenzl., 1898.
  • Eulophia gastrodioides Schltr., 1899.
  • Eulophia gonychila Schltr. in O.Warburg (ed.), 1903.
  • Eulophia gracilis Lindl., 1823.
  • Eulophia graminea Lindl., 1833.
  • Eulophia grandidieri H.Perrier, 1935.
  • Eulophia guineensis Lindl., 1823.
  • Eulophia herbacea Lindl., 1833.
  • Eulophia hereroensis Schltr., 1896.
  • Eulophia hirschbergii Summerh., 1958.
  • Eulophia hologlossa Schltr., 1913.
  • Eulophia holubii Rolfe in D.Oliver & auct. suc. (eds.), 1897.
  • Eulophia ibityensis Schltr., 1925.
  • Eulophia javanica J.J.Sm., 1921.
  • Eulophia juncifolia Summerh., 1958.
  • Eulophia kamarupa Sud.Chowdhury, 1993.
  • Eulophia katangensis (De Wild.) De Wild., 1919.
  • Eulophia kyimbilae Schltr., 1915.
  • Eulophia lachnocheila Hook.f., 1890.
  • Eulophia latilabris Summerh. in J.Hutchinson & J.M.Dalziel, 1936.
  • Eulophia laurentii (De Wild.) Summerh., 1960.
  • Eulophia leachii Greatrex ex A.V.Hall, 1965.
  • Eulophia lejolyana Geerinck, 1990.
  • Eulophia lenbrassii Ormerod, 2003.
  • Eulophia leonensis Rolfe in D.Oliver & auct. suc. (eds.), 1897.
  • Eulophia leontoglossa Rchb.f., 1881.
  • Eulophia litoralis Schltr., 1899.
  • Eulophia livingstoneana (Rchb.f.) Summerh., 1947 publ. 1948.
  • Eulophia longisepala Rendle, 1894.
  • Eulophia macaulayi Summerh., 1927.
  • Eulophia mackinnonii Duthie, 1902.
  • Eulophia macowanii Rolfe in W.H.Harvey & auct. suc. (eds.), 1912.
  • Eulophia macra Ridl., J. Linn. Soc., 1886.
  • Eulophia macrantha Rolfe in D.Oliver & auct. suc. (eds.), 1897.
  • Eulophia macrobulbon (E.C.Parish & Rchb.f.) Hook.f., 1890.
  • Eulophia malangana (Rchb.f.) Summerh., K1956.
  • Eulophia mangenotiana Bosser & Veyret, 1970.
  • Eulophia mannii (Rchb.f.) Hook.f., 1890.
  • Eulophia massokoensis Schltr., 1915.
  • Eulophia mechowii (Rchb.f.) T.Durand & Schinz, 1894.
  • Eulophia meleagris Rchb.f., 1847.
  • Eulophia milnei Rchb.f., 1881.
  • Eulophia monantha W.W.Sm., 1921.
  • Eulophia monile Rchb.f.,1867.
  • Eulophia monotropis Schltr. in R.E.Fries, 1916.
  • Eulophia monticola Rolfe in D.Oliver & auct. suc. (eds.), 1897.
  • Eulophia montis-elgonis Summerh., 1932.
  • Eulophia moratii N.Hallé, 1977.
  • Eulophia mumbwaensis Summerh., 1927.
  • Eulophia nervosa H.Perrier, 1935.
  • Eulophia nicobarica N.P.Balakr. & N.G.Nair, 1976.
  • Eulophia nuttii Rolfe in D.Oliver & auct. suc. (eds.), 1897.
  • Eulophia nyasae Rendle, 1894.
  • Eulophia obscura P.J.Cribb, 1977.
  • Eulophia obstipa P.J.Cribb & la Croix, 1998.
  • Eulophia obtusa (Lindl.) Hook.f., 1890.
  • Eulophia ochreata Lindl., 1859.
  • Eulophia odontoglossa Rchb.f., 1846.
  • Eulophia orthoplectra (Rchb.f.) Summerh., 1939.
  • Eulophia ovalis Lindl., 1836.
    • Eulophia ovalis var. bainesii (Rolfe) P.J.Cribb & la Croix, 1998.
    • Eulophia ovalis var. ovalis.
  • Eulophia parilamellata Butzin, 1975.
  • Eulophia parviflora (Lindl.) A.V.Hall, 1965.
  • Eulophia parvilabris Lindl., 1836.
  • Eulophia parvula (Rendle)]] Summerh., 1957.
  • Eulophia pauciflora Guillaumin, 1930.
  • Eulophia pelorica D.L.Jones & M.A.Clem., 2004.
  • Eulophia penduliflora Kraenzl., 1901.
  • Eulophia perrieri Schltr., 1913.
  • Eulophia petersii (Rchb.f.) Rchb.f., 1865.
  • Eulophia pileata Ridl., 1885.
  • Eulophia plantaginea (Thouars) Rolfe ex Hochr., 1908.
  • Eulophia platypetala Lindl., 1836.
  • Eulophia pratensis Lindl., 1859.
  • Eulophia promensis Lindl., 1833.
  • Eulophia protearum Rchb.f., 1867.
  • Eulophia pulchra (Thouars) Lindl., 1833.
  • Eulophia pyrophila (Rchb.f.) Summerh., 1947 publ. 1948.
  • Eulophia ramifera Summerh., 1958.
  • Eulophia ramosa Ridl., 1885.
  • Eulophia rara Schltr., 1915.
  • Eulophia reticulata Ridl., J. Linn. Soc., 1885.
  • Eulophia rhodesiaca Schltr. in R.E.Fries, 1916.
  • Eulophia richardsiae P.J.Cribb & la Croix, 1997.
  • Eulophia rolfeana Kraenzl. in O.Warburg (ed.), 1903.
  • Eulophia rosea (Lindl.) A.D.Hawkes, 1964.
  • Eulophia rugulosa Summerh., 1958.
  • Eulophia rutenbergiana Kraenzl., 1882.
  • Eulophia ruwenzoriensis Rendle, 1895.
  • Eulophia sabulosa Schltr., 1915.
  • Eulophia saxicola P.J.Cribb & G.Will., 1977.
  • Eulophia schaijesii Geerinck, 1985.
  • Eulophia schweinfurthii Kraenzl., 1893.
  • Eulophia seleensis (De Wild.) Butzin, 1975.
  • Eulophia siamensis Rolfe ex Downie, 1925.
  • Eulophia sooi Chun & Tang ex S.C.Chen, 1999.
  • Eulophia sordida Kraenzl., 1902.
  • Eulophia speciosa (R.Br. ex Lindl.) Bolus, 1889.
  • Eulophia spectabilis (Dennst.) Suresh in D.H.Nicolson, 1988.
  • Eulophia stachyodes Rchb.f., 1878.
  • Eulophia stenopetala Lindl., 1859.
  • Eulophia stenoplectra Summerh., 1958.
  • Eulophia streptopetala Lindl., 1826.
    • Eulophia streptopetala var. rueppelii (Rchb.f.) P.J.Cribb, 1979.
    • Eulophia streptopetala var. stenophylla (Summerh.) P.J.Cribb, 1989.
    • Eulophia streptopetala var. streptopetala.
  • Eulophia stricta Rolfe in D.Oliver & auct. suc. (eds.), 1897.
  • Eulophia subsaprophytica Schltr., 1915.
  • Eulophia subulata Rendle, 1895.
  • Eulophia suzannae Geerinck, 1990.
  • Eulophia sylviae Geerinck, 1990.
  • Eulophia tabularis (L.f.) Bolus, 1888.
  • Eulophia taitensis Pfennig & P.J.Cribb, 1977.
  • Eulophia tanganyikensis Rolfe in D.Oliver & auct. suc. (eds.), 1897.
  • Eulophia tenella Rchb.f., 1847.
  • Eulophia thomsonii Rolfe in D.Oliver & auct. suc. (eds.), 1897.
  • Eulophia toyoshimae Nakai, 1920.
  • Eulophia tricristata Schltr. in O.Warburg (ed.), 1903.
  • Eulophia trilamellata De Wild., 1919.
  • Eulophia tuberculata Bolus, 1889.
  • Eulophia ukingensis Schltr., 1915.
  • Eulophia venosa (F.Muell.) Rchb.f. ex Benth., 1873.
  • Eulophia venulosa Rchb.f., 1881.
  • Eulophia venusta Schltr., 1919.
  • Eulophia versicolor Frapp. ex Cordem., 1895.
  • Eulophia walleri (Rchb.f.) Kraenzl. in H.G.A.Engler (ed.), 1895.
  • Eulophia welwitschii (Rchb.f.) Rolfe, 1889.
  • Eulophia wendlandiana Kraenzl., 1897.
  • Eulophia zeyheriana Sond., 1846.
  • Eulophia zollingeri (Rchb.f.) J.J.Sm., 1905.

Natural Hybrids[]

  • Eulophia × burundiensis Arbonn. & Geerinck, 1993 publ. 1994. (E. cucullata × E. flavopurpurea.)
  • Eulophia × pholelana H.Kurze & O.Kurze, 1990. (E. ovalis var. bainesii × E. zeyheriana.)
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